ارزیابی تحمل به تنش کم آبی در برخی ژنوتیپ‌های کنجد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

2 مربی‌ گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

تنوع ژنتیکی و تحمل به خشکی ژنوتیپ‏های کنجد از طریق مطالعۀ شاخص‏های تحمل به خشکی و ترسیم بای‏پلات با آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با 12 تیمار و 3 تکرار، در مزرعۀ تحقیقاتی دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند در سال زراعی 1389‌ـ 1390 ‌بررسی شد. تیمار مورد نظر در 12 سطح شامل ژنوتیپ‏های بیرجند، خوسف، تربت جام، رقم سینتتیک (صفی‏آباد)، داراب 1، داراب 14، بندر‌عباس، یلووایت، دشتستان 2، دشتستان 5 و لاین‏های 2 و TN234 و تنش در دو سطح (تنش خشکی و نرمال) بود. آبیاری در محیط نرمال براساس 100 و در محیط تنش براساس 200 میلی‏متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A انجام گرفت. ژنوتیپ‏های مورد نظر از نظر کلیۀ صفات به استثنای طول، عرض و تعداد کپسول تفاوت معنا‏داری با هم در هر دو محیط داشتند و تنش بر کلیۀ صفات به‌جزطول و عرض کپسول تأثیرگذار بود. ژنوتیپ‏های بندرعباس و داراب 14 بیشترین و ژنوتیپ‏های صفی‏آباد و لاین 2 کمترین عملکرد در شرایط نرمال را داشت. در شرایط تنش، ژنوتیپ‏های داراب 1 و لاین TN234 بیشترین و ژنوتیپ‏های بیرجند و داراب 14 کمترین عملکرد داشتند. بیشترین آسیب تنش در صفات تعداد کپسول، عملکرد دانه، تعداد برگ و شاخص برداشت و کمترین آسیب در صفات تعداد شاخۀ فرعی، وزن هزاردانه، وزن کپسول، ارتفاع بوته و عملکرد بیولوژیکی مشاهده شد. بنابراین، شاخص‏های [1]STI، [2]GMP، [3]MP و [4]Harm مطلوب بوده و گزینش براساس آن‌ها ژنوتیپ‏های داراب 1 و لاین TN234 را به‌منزلۀ ژنوتیپ‏های مطلوب شناسایی کرد.



[1] .Stress Tolerance Index


[2] .Geometric Mean Productivity


[3] .Mean Productivity


[4] .Harmonic Mean

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of tolerance to water stress in some sesame genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Zabet 1
  • Ali Reza Samadzadeh 2
1 Assistant of Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, university of Birjand
2 Instructor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, university of Birjand
چکیده [English]

To study genetic diversity and drought tolerance in sesame genotypes, an experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2010-2011 was conducted at the Agricultural Research Field, University of Birjand under stress and non-stress conditions. The aim of this study was the testing of yield, tolerance index and bi-plot analysis. Materials included genotypes Birjand, Khusf, Torbate-jam, Safi-Abad, Darab 1, Darab 14, Bandar Abbas, Yellowite, Dashtestan 2, Dashtestan 5, Line 2 and Line TN234. The irrigation was carried in 100 and 200 mm evaporation of A class pan in normal and stress conditions respectively. The compound analysis of variance showed that the genotypes were different in the most traits except for capsule length, capsule width and the number of capsules. The drought stress was affected on the most traits except for capsule length, capsule width. Mean comparisons showed that the genotypes Bandar Abbas and Darab 1 have the highest and Safiabad and Darab 14 lines have the lowest YP. The genotypes Darab 1 and Line TN234 have highest and the genotypes Birjand and Darab 14 have the lowest YS. The maximum damage of drought stress was on the capsule number, economic yield, leaf number and harvest index and the minimum damage were on the auxiliary branch number, seed weight, capsule weight, plant height and biomass. Correlation analysis showed that STI, GMP, MP and Harm are appropriate and selection on their identified darab1 and TN234 line as desirable genotypes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cluster
  • Components
  • Correlation
  • index
  • Plot
1. اسکندری ح و زهتاب س (1389) «ارزیابی کارایی مصرف آب و عملکرد دانۀ ارقام کنجد در شرایط آبیاری متفاوت به عنوان کشت دوم». دانشکشاورزیپایدار، 2/20(1): 38‌ـ 51

2. پاپری مقدم فرد ا و بحرانی م ج (١٣٨٤) «تأثیر کاربرد نیتروژن و تراکم بوته بر برخی ویژگی‏های زراعی کنجد». علوم کشاورزیایران، 36: 129‌ـ 135.

3. خواجه‏پور م ر (1383) گیاهانصنعتی. انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی، واحد صنعتی اصفهان. 564 صفحه.

4. دینی تر کمانی م و کاراپتیان ژ (1386).K بررسی میزان و تنوع پروتئین در بذر 10 ژنوتیپ کنجد». علوموفنونکشاورزیومنابعطبیعی، 11: 225‌ـ 231.

5. رضوانی‏مقدم پ، نوروزپور ق، نباتی ج و محمدآبادی ع ا (1384) «بررسی خصوصیات مورفولوژیک، عملکرد دانه و روغن کنجد در تراکم‏های مختلف بوته و فواصل مختلف آبیاری». پژوهش‏های زراعی ایران، 3(1): 57‌ـ 68.

                                                                                                                                                                                           

6. Ali MA, Niaz S, Abbas A, Sabir W and Jabran K (2009) Genetic diversity and assessment of drought tolerant sorghum landraces based on morph-physiological traits at different growth stages. Plant Omics Journal. 2: 214-227.

7. Anilakumar KR, Pal A, Khanum F and Bawa AS (2010) Nutritional, medicinal and industrial uses of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds-an overview. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus. 75: 159-168

8. Ashri A (2010) Sesame breeding. In: J Janick, Ed, Plant Breeding Reviews, Volume 16. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Oxford.

9. Bedigian D (2010) Characterization of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm: a critique. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 57: 641-647.

10. Blum A (1988) Plant Breeding for Stress Environments. CRC press, Boca Raton, FL. p 38-78.

11. Cagirgan MI (2006) Selection and morphological characterization of induced determinate mutants in sesame. Field Crops Research. 96: 19-24.

12. Cheung SC, Szeto YT and Benzie IF (2007) Antioxidant protection of edible oils. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 62: 39-42.

13. Daneshian J and Jonoubi P (2008) Evaluation of sunflower new hybrids tolerance to water deficit stress In proc of the 5th International Crop Science Congress.

14. Dargahi Y, Asghari A, Shokrpour M, Rasulzadeh A, Garib Eshgi A and Shiri MR (2011) Evaluation of Water stress Tolerance in Sesame Varieties Based on Tolerance Indices. Journal of Agricultural Science. 21/2(3): 119-133.

15. Dilip K, Ajumdar M and Roy S (1991) Response of summer sesame to irrigation, row spacing & plant population. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 37: 758-762.

16. El- Habbasha SF, Abdel Salam MS and Kabesh MO (2007) Response of two sesame varieties (Sesamum indicum L.) to partial replacement of Chemical Fertilizer by Bio-organic Fertilizers. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science. 3(6): 563-571.

17. Elleuch M, Bedigian D, Besbes S, Blecker C and Attia H (2011) Dietary fiber characteristics and antioxidant activity of sesame seed coats (testae). International Journal of Food Properties. 15: 25-37

18. Elleuch M, Bedigian D, Zitoun A and Zouari N (2010) Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds in food, nutrition and health. In VR Preedy, RR Watson, VB Patel,. Eds, Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention, Elsevier. FAO. FAOSTAT Database. 2012.

19. FAO (2008) Bulletin of statistics. 4: 43-45.

20. Fernandez GCJ (1992) Effective selection criteria for assessing plant stress tolerance. pp. 257-270. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Adaptation of Vegetables and other Food Crops to Temperature and Water Stress. AVRDC, Shanhua, Taiwan.

21. Fischer RA and Maurer R (1978) Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivar, I: Grain yield responses. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 29: 897- 912.

22. Golestani M and Pakniyat H (2007) Evaluation of drought tolerance indices in Sesame lines. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 11(41/A):141-150.

23. Hiremath SC, Patil CG, Patil KB and Nagasampi MH (2007) Genetic diversity of seed lipid content and fatty acid composition in some species of Sesamum L. (Pedaliacease). African Journal of Biotechnology. 6: 539-543.

24. Karaaslan D, Boydak E, Gercek S and Simsek M (2007) Influence of irrigation intervals and row spacing on some yield components of sesame grown in Harran region. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 6: 623-627.

25. Kumar AS, Prasad TN and Prasad UK (1996) Effect of irrigation & nitrogen on growth, yield/oil content, nitrogen uptake & water-use of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum). Indian Journal of Agronomy. 41: 111-115.

26. Kuol BG (2004) Breeding for drought tolerance in Sesame (Sesamum indicum) in Sudan. Göttingen: Cuvillier press. 1th edit. 224 P.

27. Mehrabi Z and Ehsanzadeh P (2010) Effect of water stress on grain yield attributes and grain yield of four sesame genotypes. Fifth National Conference on New Ideas in Agriculture. Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Esfahan) Branch, College of Agriculture. 16 February 2011.

28. Mehrabi Z and Ehsanzadeh P (2011) A study on physiological attributes and grain yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars under different soil moisture regimes. Journal of Crops Improvement. 13( 2): 75-88.

29. Mensah JK, Obadoni BO, Eroutor PG and Onome-Irieguna F (2006) Simulated flooding and drought effects on germination, growth, and yield parameters of sesame (Sesame indicum L.). African Journal of Biotechnology. 5: 1249-1253.

30. Nzikou JM, Matos L, Bouanga-Kalou G, Ndangui CB, Pambou-Tobi NPG, Kimbonguila A, Silou T, Linder M and Desobry S (2009) Chemical Composition on the Seeds and Oil of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Grown in Congo- Brazzaville. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1: 6-11.

31. Pham TD, Nguyen TDT, Carlson AS and Bui TM (2010) Morphological evaluation of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) varieties from different origins. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 4: 498-504.

32. Quarrie SA, Stojanovic J and Pekic S (1999) Improving drought tolerance in small-grain cereals: A case study, progress and prospects. Plant Growth Regulation. 29: 1-21.

33. Razi H and Assad MT (1998) Evaluation variability of important agronomic traits and drought tolerant criteria in sunflower cultivars. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2: 30-43.

34. Richards RA (1996) Defining selection criteria to improve yield under drought. Plant Growth Regulation. 20: 157-166.

35. Jian, S, Yue-Liang R, Mei-Wang L, Ting-Xian Y, Xiao-Wen Y and Hong-Ying Z (2010) Effect of drought stress on Sesame growth and yield characteristics and comprehensive evaluation of drought tolerance. Chinese Journal of Oil Crop Sciences. 4:525- 533.

36. Tantawy MM, Ouda SA and Khalil FA (2007) Irrigation optimization for different sesame varieties grown under water stress conditions. Research Journal of Applied Sciences. 3: 7-12.

37. Ucan K, Killi F, Gencoglan C and Merdun H (2007) Effect of irrigation frequency and amount on water use efficiency and yield of sesame (Sesame indicum L.) under field conditions. Field Crops Research. 101: 249-258.

38. Were BA, Onkware OA, Gudu S, Welander M and Carlsson AS (2006) Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in East African sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) accessions evaluated over 3 years. Field Crops Research. 97: 254-260.

39. Yol E and Uzun B (2012) Geographical patterns of sesame accessions grown under Mediterranean environmental conditions, and establishment of a core collection. Crop Science 52: 2206-2214.